Meta-analyses have shown that fruits and veggies are statistically associated with better health. (regarding all cause mortaility, diabetes, stroke, cancer, gastric cancer, lung cancer, bladder cancer, colectoral cancer, breast cancer, asthma etc.)JeffC wrote:boiled potatoes are healthier than raw fruit.
In contrast, potato varieties are tested for remaining alkaloid levels after boiling, to check whether these levels may pose a threat to human health.Sotelo et al
Unfortunately, they are not tested for most AGEs that are formed due to cooking.
Potato tubers naturally contain a number of defense substances, including glycoalkaloids and calystegines.Petersson et al
Environmental effects may induce high levels in genetically predisposed potato varieties.Valcarcel et al
Total glycoalkaloid levels in 60 different potato varieties ranged from 4 to 957 mg/kg of dry weight in the flesh.Valcarcel et al ('normal' potatoes contain about 78% water)
The α-solanine content in Pakistani potato varieties ranged from 4 to 2466 mg/100 g of dry weight in flesh. (one potato variety was rendered unfit for human consumption) Aziz et al
Content of glycoalkaloids (95% is α-solanine and α-chaconine) in tubers is usually 10-100 mg/kg and maximum levels do not exceed 200 mg/kg.Ruprich et al
The presently recognised upper limit of safety in humans is 200 mg total glycoalkaloids per kg fresh (raw) potato. Mensinga et al
Boiling does not destroy all glycoalkaloids in peeled potatoes. It only reduces their content (mainly α-chaconine and α-solanine).Lachman et al
Peel-glycoalkaloid content after boiling may be less than 9 mg/100 g. Sotelo et al
Processing potatoes to potato flakes mainly diminishes alkaloids due to peeling and leaching. The influence of thermal exposure is less significant. About 43% of the initial phenolic acids and 10% of the glycoalkaloids remain after processing.Mader et al
Daily 75 mg of alpha-solanine per kg bodyweight may be potentially lethal in hamsters within 4/5 days Langkilde et al).
Poisoning involves gastrointestinal ailments and neurological symptoms. A single intake of more than 1-3 mg/kg bodyweight is considered a critical effect dose. Potatoes currently available at the European market may lead to acute intakes >1 mg glycoalkaloids/kg bodyweight/dayRuprich et al
1.25 mg total glycoalkaloids per kg bodyweight may cause local glycoalkaloid toxicity in some human individuals. Mensinga et al
α-Solanine and α-chaconine may be synergistically cytotoxic.Yamashoji et al
Glycoalkaloids in potatoes may induce gastro-intestinal and systemic effects. Clearance of glycoalkaloids usually takes more than 24 hours, which implicates that the toxicants may accumulate in case of daily consumption.Mensinga et al