Restricted calorie intake slows down aging

Fasting during the morning and (some part of) the afternoon, eating at night
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RRM
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Re: Restricted calorie intake slows down aging

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An elevated metabolic rate associated with substantial voluntary exercise throughout life does not shorten lifespan:

In rats

On the effects of exercise on longevity in rats. The exercise used was voluntary activity wheel running.
The runners lived slightly but significantly longer than sedentary freely eating controls,
but significantly less long than food-restricted sedentary controls.
The food-restricted sedentary rats showed a true increase in life-span. Holloszy JO et al

When exercise, in the form of voluntary wheel running was combined with food restriction (approximately 30% below ad libitum),
the runners had an increased mortality rate over the first approximately 50% of their mortality curve up to age approximately 900 d. (but not in later study)
However, in those food-restricted runners that survived past approximately 900 d survival became similar to that of food-restricted sedentary controls,
with a similar increase in maximal life span. Holloszy JO

an increase in food intake is not harmful when balanced by an increase in energy expenditure.Holloszy JO

1) moderate caloric restriction combined with exercise does not normally increase the early mortality rate (in the first 50% phase, in previous study) in male rats,
2) exercise does not interfere with the extension of maximal life span by food restriction,
3) the beneficial effects of food restriction and exercise on survival are not additive or synergistic Holloszy JO

The finding that antioxidants had no effect on longevity of the wheel runners,
supports the interpretation that the caloric deficit induced by exercise in male rats
does not have a life-extending effect that is countered by oxidative tissue damage.Holloszy JO

In men

moderately vigorous sports activity was associated with a 23 percent lower risk of death Paffenbarger RS et al

data demonstrate a graded inverse relationship between total physical activity and mortality. Vigorous activities but not nonvigorous activities were associated with longevity.Lee IM et al

Harvard alumni playing moderately vigorous or more intense sports gained 1.5 years by age 90 compared with less active men.Paffenberger RS et al

Light activities (<4 multiples of resting metabolic rate (METs)) were not associated with reduced mortality rates,
moderate activities (4-<6 METs) appeared somewhat beneficial,
and vigorous activities (> or =6 METs) clearly predicted lower mortality rates. Lee IM et al
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Re: Restricted calorie intake slows down aging

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lipid peroxidation is reduced during caloric restriction Habib MP et al Matsuo M et al,
due to a change in fatty acid composition of membranes,
proportional to the degree of restriction and starting one month after initiating caloric restriction.Faulks SC et al
dime
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Re: Restricted calorie intake slows down aging

Post by dime »

How does the fatty acid composition of membranes change during caloric restriction? To less unsaturated or to more?
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Re: Restricted calorie intake slows down aging

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Erythrocyte membranes from centenarians showed:
1) decreased lipid peroxide levels and reduced susceptibility to peroxidation
2) increased unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio
3) higher levels of EPA and DHA, reduced LA and AA
4) higher fluidity
Membranes from centenarians show some distinct features in comparison with elderly subjects that might act in a protective way against injuries.Rabini RA et al

Susceptibility to lipid peroxidation is partly genetic in origin.
heritability of longevity is 0.23 for females and 0.26 for males Herskin AM
genetic factors tend to have a greater relevance in determining longevity in men than in women Corbo R et al

Nonagenarian (long-lived individuals) offspring had
1) significantly higher content of C16:1 n-7, trans C18:1 n-9, and total trans-fatty acids
2) reduced content of C18:2 n-6 and C20:4 n-6.
3) No association was detected that could justify genetic predisposition for the increased trans C18:1 n-9, monounsaturated fatty acids and decreased omega-6 synthesis.
We concluded that erythrocyte membranes derived from nonagenarian offspring have a different lipid composition (reduced lipid peroxidation and increased membrane integrity) to that of the general population.Puca AA et al

In nonagenarians we found significantly higher LDL polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) 22:4n-3 and 22:6n-3 (DHA) and a significant increase of HDL alpha tocopherol/cholesterol ratio, compared to normal elderly. Solichova D et al
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Re: Restricted calorie intake slows down aging

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dime wrote:How does the fatty acid composition of membranes change during caloric restriction? To less unsaturated or to more?
What i could find so far:

Chronic food restriction inhibited the age-related increase of malondialdehyde production and lipid hydroperoxides.
The anti-lipoperoxidation action of food restriction could not be attributable to the changes in membrane lipid content nor vitamin E status.
Restricting calories modified membrane fatty acid composition by increasing ALA and decreasing DPA content in both membranes.Laganiere S et al

Caloric restriction was observed to increase the membrane content of C22:6 (DHA) and to decrease C18:2 (Linoleic acid; LA; omega-6) content. Celalu WT et al

(in dietary restricted rats) No statistically significant difference in the overall polyunsaturated fatty acid content was noted. Lee J et al

total number of fatty acid double bonds and the peroxidizability index were not changed by caloric restriction.
caloric restriction during 4 months decreases oxidative stress-derived damage to heart mitochondrial proteins,
due to an increase in the capacity of the restricted mitochondria to decompose oxidatively modified proteins. Pamplona R et al

With age, gondoic acid (20:1n-9) decreased in all organs, 14:1n-7 and vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) increased in the kidney and heart, oleic acid (18:1n-9) increased in the kidney; 20:2n-6, LA (18:2n-6) and DPA (22:5n-3) decreased in the liver and heart, DGLA (20:3n-6) decreased in the kidney and increased in the heart. The most abundant PUFAs, AA (20:4n-6) and DHA (22:6n-3), either remained the same or increased with age. Dietary restriction significantly counteracted most of these changes, but not all. DR magnified the increase in 20:2(n-6), for example, which may not be age-related. Tamborini I et al

Dietary restriction, which is known to retard various aging processes, was found to decrease the turnover rates of membrane lipid species. Consequently, the fatty acid composition in phospholipids remained unchanged in the synaptic plasma membranes of food restricted mice.Ando S et al

So, caloric restriction comes with less lipid peroxidation,
but not necessarily with less PUFAs.
Somehow, defense steps up its activities.
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Re: Restricted calorie intake slows down aging

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Very interesting thread started by Dime,
http://www.waitalk.com/viewtopic.php?f=36&t=3363
about how exercise (similar to calorie restriction) evokes recylcing of unused cells, key to longevity.

In autophagy, redundant / damaged organelles in cells are used for energy.
So, this is an alternative source of energy, activated by calorie restriction and physical activity (evoking a lack of energy on cellular level).
You need less calories from diet if you clean up all the mess in your cells, which prolongs lifespan of these cells,
which prolongs lifespan of the entire organism.
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Calorie restriction

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A decrease in oxidative damage has been proposed as a mechanism; however, a lack of correlation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and life span was recently reported in Drosophila
Furthermore, increasing evidence suggests that SIRT1, the mammalian ortholog of the SIR2 gene that mediates the life-extending effect of CR in yeast, is a key regulator of cell defenses and survival in mammals in response to stress.
Here, we report that calorie restriction for either 3 or 12 months induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate formation in various tissues of male mice. This was accompanied by mitochondrial biogenesis, with increased oxygen consumption and adenosine triphosphate production, and an enhanced expression of sirtuin 1. Nizoli E, et al.

Increase in ATP, increase in mitochondrial biogenesis, increased oxygen consumption and eNOS production and sirtuin 1 expression all seem to correlate with the longevity effects of caloric restriction. More so than oxidative damage. Oxidative damage might more be the result of an incorrect metabolism instead of the cause of ageing.
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Re: Restricted calorie intake slows down aging

Post by waiwilliams »

It seems that this idea of fasting is all over the place at the moment
http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle ... -fast-diet
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Re: Restricted calorie intake slows down aging

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Yes, a lot of scientific studies have been done about it recently.
A hot topic, because of the spectacular results.
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